Service Dogs – Different Types and What They Do
Many people are surprised to learn there are more than a dozen different specializations for service dogs. There are diabetic alert dogs, severe allergy alert dogs, visual assistance dogs, hearing dogs for the deaf, wheelchair assistance dogs, psychiatric service dogs, brace/mobility support dogs, medical alert dogs, seizure assistance dogs, and dogs for autism, PTSD and more.*
According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990), a dog is considered a “service dog” if it has been “individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of a person with a disability.” A disability is a “mental or physical condition which substantially limits a major life activity.” Examples include the following:
- Caring for one’s self
- Performing manual tasks
Other disabilities may not be visible:
- Psychiatric conditions
To be considered a service dog, the dog must be trained to perform tasks directly related to the person’s disability. Some service dogs perform two or more functions for their disabled handler, such as a brace / mobility support dog and a seizure assistance dog. There isn’t a clear way to classify all types of service dogs, nor is classification particularly important under the ADA as long as the dog is a service dog. The dog’s type, function, title, or classification is usually left up to the dog’s handler. The following are some ways in which service dogs can assist their handlers.
Allergy Alert: The service dog can alert its handler to life-threatening allergens that may be in the area, especially tree nuts, gluten, or shellfish.
Autism Assistance: The service dog can help to calm or ground an individual who has autism via tactile or deep pressure stimulation. The dog may also assist in teaching life skills, maintaining boundaries, or finding a “runner.”
Mobility Support /Wheelchair Assistance: A brace/mobility support dog works to provide bracing or counterbalancing to a partner who has balance issues due to a disability. Many brace/mobility support dogs also retrieve, open/close doors, or do other tasks to assist in day-to- day life or in an emergency. Dogs may also assist their partner by retrieving dropped objects, opening doors, retrieving the phone, helping with transfers, or doing anything else their partner may need.
Diabetic Alert: These dogs can alert their handler to dangerous or potentially deadly blood sugar highs and lows. Many dogs are trained to call 911 on a special K-9 Alert phone if their partner cannot be roused.
Hearing Assistance: Hearing assistance dogs can alert their deaf handler to environmental sounds, including, but not limited to, alarms, doorbells, knocking, phones, cars, or their name.
Medical Alert: These dogs are trained to alert their handler to dangerous physiologic changes. such as spikes or drops in blood pressure, hormone levels or some other parameter or to recognized an identifiable symptom.
Psychiatric Service: Psychiatric service dogs assist their handler with a psychiatric disability such as anxiety, depression or PTSD via specific trained tasks.
Seizure Response: These dogs respond to their handler’s seizures via trained tasks. The dog may retrieve medication, utilize deep pressure stimulation to end a seizure early, fetch a nearby person to help or call 911.
Visual Assistance: Also know as guide dogs, these animals help their visually impaired or blind handler to navigate the world.
Kimberly Brenowitz is the Master Trainer with Animals Deserve Better, Inc., and Paws for Life in Marietta, GA. She can be reached at .
*Editor’s Note: Although the article above does not specifically address service animals and sleep disorders, professionally trained service animals have been reported to be able to assist people with IH, narcolepsy and related disorders. For example, a service animal may be trained to wake their owner in response to an alarm, or wake them if they are falling asleep in public. It’s possible a service animal may make sure that their owner gets to a safe place when they are overwhelmed with sleep, and helps with other tasks. Service animals can also offer comfort and calm anxiety. Of course, owning and caring for any animal is a major commitment and expense. Thorough research and careful thought on the advantages, challenges, costs and responsibilities of owning a service animal is essential.
See also the Service Animal section of our Treatment page